Kleitman co-authored with Erdős a paper On linear independence of sequences in a banach space in the pacific journal of Mathematics in 1953. One can find certain similarities between Albert Einstein a top theoretical/mathematical physicist and Alexander Grothendieck, a top mathematician. Both are german born, and of a german-Jewish mother; both suffered because of the nazis. Both have exhibited the ability of an entirely original, and very creative thinking, as well as the ability to create new paradigms in fundamental science. Interestingly, neither of the two liked wearing socks. Much more significantly, both scientists were determined pacifists and also idealists that had a major influence on modern culture. Unlike grothendieck, however, einstein signed the fateful letter that marked his (later regreted) involvement in the sequence of events which initiated the a-bomb project in the. Perhaps, a moral to be derived from Albert Einsteins own experience with the fundamental equation Emc2, and the idea on the a-bomb based on it, is that fundamental findings in mathematics and mathematical physics can have very profound effects on the entire world, and that. Platonic results that may appear quite innocent and remote from the real world can have indeed great impact on the latter.
His published reports and book on General Relativity (GR) theory surpassed special relativity in Minkowsky 4D spacetime but may not be conceptually consistent in Einsteins formulations with standard quantum mechanics, as pointed out by einstein himself who considered quantum mechanics of his days. Subsequent developments in quantum physics and elementary particles/high-energy physics seem to have however disproved the einsteins viewpoint of quantum mechanics. After Marcel Grossmann presented to einstein the advantages of riemannian geometry for the formulation of General Relativity, he began to ponder on the geometry of time in to space. . Einsteins innovations have had great influence not only on physics but also on mathematics, and many mathematicians have pondered on the mathematical implications of Einsteins work. Einstein died on April 18, 1955, still trying to find an unified field theory; nowadays, numerous theoretical and mathematical attempts are still being made at consolidating quantum field theories (QFT) with General Relativity into a single quantum gravity theory, or a theory of eveything (TOE). Einstein has Erdős number (http planetmath. With Ernst Straus he published an article on gravitational fields for a physics journal, and Straus co-authored an article on mass formulas and mass inequalities with Coleman and Daniel Kleitman.
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Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future. This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable - though much less certain - that extremely power- ful bombs of a new type may thus be constructed. A single bomb of this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory. However, such bombs might very well prove to be too heavy for transportation by The United States has only very poor ores of uranium in moderate quantities. There is some good ore in Canada and the former czechoslovakia. While the most important source of uranium is Belgian Congo.
In view of the situation you may think it desirable to have more permanent contact maintained between the Administration and the group of physicists working on chain reactions in America. One possible way of achieving this might be for you to entrust with this task a person who has your confidence and who could perhaps serve in an inofficial capacity. His task might comprise the following: a) to approach government Departments, keep them informed of the further development, and put forward recommendations for government action, giving particular attention to the problem of securing a supply of uran- ium ore for the United States; b). I understand that Germany has actually stopped the sale of uranium from the czechoslovakian mines which she has taken over. That she should have taken such early action might perhaps be understood on the ground that the son of the german Under-Secretary of State, von weizsÃÂcker, is attached to the kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin where some of the American work favourite on uranium is now being repeated. Yours very truly, (Albert Einstein) einsteins work on special relativity theory was published only shortly after that of poincaré, albeit in a complete form, unlike poincaré s publication that was incomplete.
Szilard) which is reproduced below, and more importantly, at the insistence of the British war allies. Einstein signed and arranged for the letter to be presented to fdr in spite of previous warnings from Max Born not to get involved in war work of this nature; much too late in 1945, einstein, as well as szilard, regreted his action: I made. However, the first nuclear fission reactor was built and operated by Enrico fermis team in Chicago in 1942 as part of the manhattan project; claims were only recently made that the japanese may have also built working nuclear fission reactors for military purposes both. Certain sources provide documentary evidence that the manhattan project began in earnest only when the British allies became convinced of the practical possibility of making an A-bomb, at least in part as a result of the interpretation and somewhat overoptimistic computations of Otto Frisch. Thus, einsteins first letter has been claimed to have had only a lukewarm reception by members of fdrs administration until the British government sudden revival of interest in having the a-bomb built in the usa, as it was not contemplated to have it dropped. Princeton University Professor Albert Einsteins first letter to President Franklin.
Roosevelt: (tmlfirstphotocopy available on line through this weblink). Albert Einstein, old Grove. Nassau point, peconic, long Island, august 2nd 1939. Roosevelt, white house, washington,. Some recent work. Szilard, which has been com- municated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element uran- ium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the im- mediate future. Certain aspects of the situation which has arisen seem to call for watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action on the part of the Administration. I believe therefore that it is my duty to bring to your attention the following facts and recommendations: In the course of the last four months it has been made probable - through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and szilard.
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The first reports of nuclear fission observations were however published by einsteins old friend Otto hahn at the kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin during the last weeks of 1938. The interpretation of Hahns nuclear fission observations was then published early in 1939 by lise meitner and her nephew Otto Frisch. MlMax (Karl Ernst Ludwig) Planck himself considered the possibility of the latent energy of the atom, also based on the interpretation of Einsteins equation Emc2, and said needed in 1908 that though the actual production of such a business radical process might have appeared extremely small only. In spite of this hypothetical, theoretical possibility, einstein did not seem to have considered the practical possibility of an A-bomb before 1936. Leo szilard filed in the spring of 1934 a patent application that was approved which described the laws governing a nuclear chain reaction and the design of a (hypothetical) nuclear fission reactor. He assigned his patent to the British Admiralty of Great Britain because at that time a patent could be kept secret in Britain only if it was assigned to the British government. Although he approached in 1934 both the British War Office and the Admiralty, neither were interested at that time in following through with the possible military applications of szilards patent. The opposite happened however in the usa in 1939, following Einsteins first letter to President Franklin. Roosevelt (inspired.
Leo szilard (a hungarian- jewish refugée from Horthys nazis in Hungary) wrote a two-page (first) letter to the http. Wikipedia us president Franklin. Roosevelt, that initiated the fatal chain reaction leading to the design, construction and testing of the first A-bombs, and many more afterwards, including the hydrogen bomb. His fundamental energy equation Emc2 is, and was, the basis for the huge energy release calculated for the nuclear fission chain reaction in which a relatively small change in mass of the nuclear explosive is converted extremely rapidly, and thus, explosively into a very large. Most unfortunately, a powerful enough H-bomb journalist can, in principle, burn up the entire atmosphere of our planet Earth. The benefits of the a- and h- bomb development to the high-energy physics and mathematical physics community have been during the second half of the last century in the form of huge, ever increasing amounts of funding available for ever more powerful particle accelerators and. Einstein was a strong pacifist and he was not himself involved in any way in the direct development of any a-bomb; however, other top us mathematical physicists such as notably. Wheeler, and Oppenheimer (who was officially placed in charge of organizing the scientific side of the manhattan project by former President roosevelt) made possible the design and construction of the a-bomb believing, they said, that it would never be dropped on any human population during. A fact little known is that the unreported first experimental findings of nuclear fission were made by the curies in France before wwii, but that they deliberately refrained on moral grounds from publishing their observations in the hope of avoiding the design and development.
justified by stating that he hoped modern science could uncover what had made einstein so intelligent. Albert Einstein (18791955) was a german-born physicist (of German -jewish parents)with both Swiss and German citizenships until 1932. Following his taking up permanent residence as a professor at Princeton, usa, in 1933 he became a top American physicist best known for the special and general theories of relativity; he became a naturalized us citizen in 1940. He also reported the first correct quantum interpretation of the photoelectric effect, for which he was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics. He published a total of about 450 physics articles, including also several books. His equation, emc2 that relates the energy e of a (quantum) particle to its mass, m, and the speed of light c, (also called the mass-energy equivalence) is unchallenged even today as a fundamental equation in quantum theory and mathematical physics. Regretably, however, even according to einstein himself, the latter has also lead towards the end of wwii to the successful development, testing at Alamogordo, and the deployment of the first (so-called) atom bombs (or A-bombs, that are in fact nuclear fission bombs). Thus, the famous Princeton Professor Albert Einsteinat the strong prompting and insistence of his close nuclear physicist friend.
His work had made him famous among the add populace. When Hitler began his campaign across Europe, einstein wrote to then-President roosevelt to explain the dangers of the german bomb project. His warning led to the creation of the manhattan Project and the us's own atomic bomb research and implementation, which came to fruition in time to retaliate against Japan for the bombing at pearl Harbor. Einstein may best be known for his theory of relativity, expressed formulaically as e mc2. His wife Elsa described the process by which this theory came to him, which caused him to stay locked in his upstairs room for two weeks while he worked. In addition to his many contributions to theoretical physics, einstein was a champion for civil rights. He personally made it possible for thousands of Jewish scientists to escape the nazi regime, and later went on to become a member of the naacp as he championed the fight against racism in the.
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Home facts scientists Facts albert Einstein report Facts, albert Einstein Facts, albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 - april 18, 1955) is perhaps one of the most well-known names in science in the modern era. The german-born physicist contributed many ideas that have become the foundational cornerstone for physics and research. Albert Einstein was born in Germany where he began his education. Popular belief holds that Einstein had trouble speaking and in mathematics, but those rumors appear to be false as he excelled in school. While einstein worked in a small number of positions, including assistant in the Swiss patent office after he became a citizen, but his renown as a scientist continued to grow while he published and lectured. One of his pivotal topics that launched him into scientific celebrity status was for the theory of general relativity, the earth's sun would bend light traveling from other solar systems due to its gravitational pull. Einstein became widely known for his work and research in Europe, and during his first trip to the United States he became known as a celebrated scientist. It was during his second trip to the United States that Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany, prompting Einstein to abandon his plans to return to europe due to his Jewish heritage. Even in 1930 Einstein was a known celebrity and had to guard his travel itinerary wherever he went.