Homework sheet 42 two dimensional shapes

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However, current efforts involving heated substrate sputtering may mitigate these damaging internal stresses. A second problem with sputtered sma materials is that the atomic composition and form of the sputtered film may differ significantly from that of the parent target. For example, in the case of a binary sma such as 50/50 tini, when the sputtering ions strike the surface of a target and liberate individual atoms of ti and ni, the difference in vapor pressure between these two elements produces a significant change. In addition, the grain structure of the deposited film must be carefully controlled for efficient sma actuation. What is needed then, is a low cost method for producing a distributed sma actuator array which does not rely heavily on vlsi patterning and sputtering techniques. In particular, it would be advantageous to obtain a sheet of sma material directly from bulk, wire or plate stock without adversely altering grain structure or composition.

Conventional arrangements timeline of sma strips to impart three-dimensional motion to objects are impractical because such structures are unduly large and cumbersome. This is due to the fact that such structures are not locally controllable and require excessive amounts of energy for their operation. 5,405,337 issued to the present applicant teaches a flexible vlsi film containing sma actuator elements and associated control and driver circuitry. The film is wrapped around any bendable element, such as a flexible, hollow tube, catheter, or the like. Thus, the sma actuator elements are spatially distributed about the circumference of a bendable element. In one aspect of the invention, a distributed sma array is provided on a flexible insulating film by sputtering a sma alloy and patterning the individual islands of material with reactive ion etching (rei plasma assisted etching, liftoff, or the like. The individual sma actuators can then be directly heated with electrical current (conductive sma or may be heated by contact with an adjacent heat source (non-conductive sma). Since the sma actuator film is wrapped around a flexible tube, activation of the sma film achieves movement in three dimensions. Although this approach is effective, the associated manufacturing costs are high. Patterning the sma film using conventional vlsi methods can be expensive and sputtered sma films thicker than approximately 10 microns are difficult to produce at the present time. The stress accumulated within a sputtered film greater than this thickness usually causes the film to rupture.

homework sheet 42 two dimensional shapes

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A contraction-extension mechanism using joints made of an sma material is shown by komatsu. The described mechanism is an actuator strip with multiple joints. Joule heating elements or shape-controlling heaters are integrally attached to wood the component joints of the actuator. Passing sufficient current through the heaters causes the strip to contract at the joints in a bellows-like fashion. Three-dimensional motion can be imparted to objects by a geometrically suitable arrangement of such actuators. Unfortunately, the extension-contraction mechanism is also limited. Each strip contracts and extends in one direction only.

homework sheet 42 two dimensional shapes

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Thus, to attain reversible motion, a means must be provided to return the inactive sma element to a shape other than its trained shape. This can be accomplished with active or passive components. In writing the passive configuration, a return spring is provided such that it is just strong enough to fully deflect the sma element in its martensitic state. When activated, the sma element possesses enough force to overcome the return spring and perform work on the environment as it approaches its memorized state. In an active or antagonistic configuration, each sma element must be coupled to at least one other sma element. When one sma element has been heated to an activation threshold, it provides sufficient force to deflect the inactive actuator in a desired direction. Reverse motion is accomplished by reversing the order of activation.

Because most thermal devices must expel their waste heat to the ambient environment, which in most cases is near room temperature, higher transition point smas are most commonly used as active actuator elements. During phase changes, a sma will exhibit a maximum recoverable strain of up to 8 while producing a recovery force of 35 tons per square inch or more. It is known to use sma actuators in conventionally steerable elements such as catheters. One such application, as described. 4,543,090, involves a conventional steerable and aimable catheter using smas as the control elements. This device and other conventional steerable devices using sma elements are severely limited in dexterity. Movement is limited to a single plane. Upon cooling, a sma element does not necessarily return to its pre-activation shape.

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homework sheet 42 two dimensional shapes

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For a and tini sma system, the annealing program consists of geometrically constraining the specimen, and heating it to approximately 510. In most cases, functionality is enhanced by leaving in a certain amount of cold working by abbreviating the anneal cycle. The point at which a sma becomes activated is an intrinsic property of the material and is dependent on stochiometric composition. For a typical shape memory alloy such as tini (49:51 a change in alloy ratios of 1 produces a 200. Shift in transition temperature.

Binary smas such as tini (sometimes referred to as Nitinol) can have a large range of transition temperatures. For Nitinol, atomic composition can be adjusted for a phase transition as high as 100. And as low as. Sub-zero transition materials exhibit superelastic behavior. That is, they can reversibly endure very large strains at room temperature. In the medical community, superelastic formulations of Nitinol are commonly employed in steerable guidewires. In contrast to the passive characteristics of a superelastic sma, an actuator that must perform work on its environment requires a sma capable of producing useful forces and motions for a given input of thermal energy.

Related applications background this application is a divisional application. 5, 1996, entitled Distributed Activator for a two dimensional Shape memory Allow to maynard. The field of the present invention relates, in general, to Shape memory Alloy (SMA) actuators and elements comprising these alloys. More specifically, the field of the invention relates to a spatially distributed activation means for controllably altering the local shape and deflection forces of a sma sheet. Materials which change their shape in response to external physical parameters are known and appreciated in many areas of technology.


The geometry of a piezoelectric crystal, for example, is altered by an electric field. Similarly, the macroscopic shape of a sma is sensitive to temperature. A sma material undergoes a micro-structural transformation from a martensitic phase at a low temperature to an austenitic phase at a high temperature. When in the martensitic or low temperature phase, a sma exhibits low stiffness and may be readily deformed up to 8 total strain in any direction without adversely affecting its memory properties. Upon being heated to its activation temperature, the sma becomes two to three times stiffer as it approaches its austenitic state. In addition, at the higher temperature, the sma attempts to reorganize itself on the atomic level to accommodate a previously imprinted or memorized shape. Useful motions and forces may be extracted from a sma element as it attempts to move to its previously memorized shape. If permitted to cool, the sma returns to its soft martensitic state. A shape may be trained into a sma by heating it well beyond its activation temperature to its annealing temperature and holding it there for a period of time.

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The method of claim 21, and further including the method of providing at least one cooling element in close proximity to the two-dimensional sma sheet. The method of claim 21, wherein the at least one cooling element is provided by a substrate layer formed in proximity to the two-dimensional sheet that includes a set of ducts for transporting a thermal coolant. The method of claim 21, wherein method.) is performed according to vlsi techniques. The method of claim 21, and further including the method of mounting at least one deflection sensor on the two-dimensional sheet to detect a change in shape of the two-dimensional sheet. The method of claim 21, and further including the method of depositing additional protective layers on the two-dimensional sheet. The method of claim 21, wherein method.) is performed to provide the two-dimensional sma sheet with a sufficiently small thickness to limit the lateral flow of heat through the two-dimensional sma sheet. The method of claim 21, and further including the method of storing intermediate angular deflection states in the storage device. The method of claim 35, wherein the method of storing intermediate angular deflection states in the storage device further includes the method of storing one or more respective essay current values associated with each of the intermediate angular deflection states.

homework sheet 42 two dimensional shapes

The method of claim 21, and including the method of providing an insulating layer over the two-dimensional sma sheet. The method of claim 22, and further including the method of training the two-dimensional sma sheet to a desired shape prior to providing the insulating layer. The method of claim 21, and further including the methods of: providing an array of temperature sensors over the two-dimensional sma sheet, each to derive a local temperature state of a respective portion of the two-dimensional sma sheet; and utilizing the derived temperature states. The method according to claim 21, and further including the method of training the two-dimensional sma sheet to assume a desired shape subsequent to providing electrically isolated feed lines. The method according to claim 21, and further including the methods of: providing an array of sensors for deriving angular deflection states of local portions of the two-dimensional sma sheet; providing a control unit; providing the derived deflection states to the control unit for active. The method according to claim 21, wherein method.) includes the method of providing an array of transistors to provide current to the multiple heaters. The method according to claim 27, wherein the array of transistors is an array of power transistors, each power transistor having an output lead connected to a corresponding heater to drive one or more of the heaters to an activation threshold.

values to be selectably provided by the control unit to selectable ones of the heating elements to achieve a resultant shape of the two-dimensional sheet. The method of claim 9, wherein the method.) is performed according to vlsi techniques. The method of claim 9, and further including the method of mounting at least one deflection sensor on the two-dimensional sheet to detect a change in shape of the two-dimensional sheet. The method of claim 9, and further including the method of depositing additional protective layers on the two-dimensional sheet. The method of claim 9, and further including the method of providing at least one cooling element in proximity to the two-dimensional sheet to increase thermal transfer performance. The method of claim 18, wherein the at least one cooling element is provided by a substrate layer formed in proximity to the two-dimensional sheet that includes a set of ducts for transporting a thermal coolant. The method of claim 9, and further including the method of training the two-dimensional sheet to assume a desired shape. A method of manufacturing a distributed actuator array, comprising the methods of:.) providing a two-dimensional sma sheet;.) providing multiple heaters to heat selected portions of the two-dimensional sma sheet;.) providing a current supply to selectively supply current to the multiple heaters;.).

The method according to claim 1, and further including the method of training the two-dimensional sma sheet to assume a desired shape subsequent to providing electrically isolated feed lines. A method of making a distributed actuator array comprising a two-dimensional sma sheet, comprising the methods of:.) providing an insulating layer over the two-dimensional sma sheet;.) providing a distributed array of heaters essay over the insulating layer for selective local heating of a portion. A method according to claim 5, wherein the array of transistors is an array of power transistors, each power transistor having an output lead connected to a corresponding one of the heaters for driving the heater element to an activation threshold in response to the. A method of making a distributed actuator array comprising the methods of:.) providing a two-dimensional sheet of an electrically insulative shape memory alloy;.) using vlsi techniques to form an electrical insulative layer on the two-dimensional sheet; and.) positioning at least one heating. A method of making a distributed actuator array comprising the methods of:.) providing a two-dimensional sheet of an electrically insulative shape memory alloy;.) forming an electrical insulative layer on the two-dimensional sheet;.) positioning at least one heating element over the two-dimensional sheet. A method of making a distributed actuator array comprising the methods of:.) providing a two-dimensional sheet of an electrically insulative shape memory alloy having a sufficiently small thickness to limit the lateral flow of heat through the two-dimensional sheet;.) forming an electrical insulative. The method of claim 9, wherein method.) includes the method of providing a distributed array of heating elements. The method of claim 10, and further including the method of providing a current source to supply electrical current to selectable ones of the heating elements to thereby allow the selectable ones of the heating elements to generate heat. The method of claim 11, and further including the method of providing a control unit to control the flow of the electrical current from the current source to the selectable ones of the heating elements.

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Abstract, a distributed activation small system for a unitary sheet of electrically conductive or insulative shape memory alloy having a sufficiently small section to limit the lateral flow of heat including at least one heating element disposed on the shape memory alloy sheet for locally heating. The activation system may be configured for shape memory alloy apparatus and related methods in combination with a control system for selectively activating discrete-shape memory alloy portions with various combinations of at least one heating element that receive an adjustable current such that the resultant. Methods of forming and selectively activating two-dimensional sheets of electrically conducive and insulative shape memory alloy are further provided. Claims, what is claimed is:. A method of making a distributed actuator array having a two-dimensional sma sheet, the method comprising the methods of:.) providing an insulating layer over the two-dimensional sma sheet;.) providing a distributed array of heaters over the insulating layer, each to selectively heat. The method of claim 1, and further including the method of training the two-dimensional sma sheet to a desired shape prior to providing the insulating layer. The method of claim 1, and further including the methods of: providing an array of temperature sensors over the two-dimensional sma sheet such that each of the temperature sensors derives a local temperature state of a respective portion of the two-dimensional sma sheet; utilizing the.


homework sheet 42 two dimensional shapes
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  1. Cells adopt the called "bottle 23 shape " that would be simplified as frusta. C) Mathematical model for an epithelial tube. D) Modelling clay figures illustrating two scutoids participating in a transition and two. As an embryo develops, tissues bend into complex three-dimensional shapes that lead to organs.

  2. Re: 2 dimensional array for shapes. Or another value in your two dimensional array. You would initialize this with every circle. Then modify it with some form of circle collision.

  3. vocabulary Activity Sheet Vocabulary Activity Sheet Next label the part image in the third column with the letter representing the corresponding vocabulary word. Surface and volume judgments of three-dimensional shapes. Areas of two dimensional shapes (2).

  4. So you can basically program any three-dimensional shape - or one-dimensional, two -dimensional. Methods of forming and selectively activating two -dimensional sheets of electrically conducive and insulative shape memory alloy are further provided. What is claimed is:. A method of making a distributed actuator array having a two -dimensional sma sheet.

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