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Also as of the end of 2014, there were 465,595 ordained clergy, including 5,237 bishops, 415,792 presbyters (diocesan and religious and 44,566 deacons (permanent). 75 Non-ordained ministers included 3,157,568 catechists, 367,679 lay missionaries, and 39,951 lay ecclesial ministers. 77 Catholics who have committed to religious or consecrated life instead of marriage or single celibacy, as a state of life or relational vocation, include 54,559 male religious, 705,529 women religious. These are not ordained, nor generally considered ministers unless also engaged in one of the lay minister categories above. 75 Doctrine main articles: Catholic theology and Catholic Bible catholic doctrine has developed over the centuries, reflecting direct teachings of early Christians, formal definitions of heretical and orthodox beliefs by ecumenical councils and in papal bulls, and theological debate by scholars. The church believes that it is continually guided by the holy Spirit as it discerns new theological issues and is protected infallibly from falling into doctrinal error when a firm decision on an issue is reached. 78 79 It teaches that revelation has one common source, god, and two distinct modes of transmission: Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition, 80 81 and that these are authentically interpreted by the magisterium. 82 83 Sacred Scripture consists of the 73 books of the catholic Bible, consisting of 46 Old Testament and 27 New Testament writings.

Men and women may serve as extraordinary ministers of help Holy communion, as readers (lectors or as altar servers. Historically, boys and men have only been permitted to serve as altar servers; however, since the 1990s, girls and women have also been permitted. 71 note 6 Ordained Catholics, as well as members of the laity, may enter into consecrated life either on an individual basis, as a hermit or consecrated virgin, or by joining an institute of consecrated life (a religious institute or a secular institute ). 72 Examples of institutes of consecrated life are the benedictines, the carmelites, the dominicans, the Franciscans, the missionaries of Charity, the legionaries of Christ and the sisters of Mercy. 72 "Religious institutes" is a modern term encompassing both " religious orders " and " religious congregations " which were once distinguished in canon law. 73 The terms "religious order" and "religious institute" tend to be used as synonyms colloquially. 74 by means of Catholic charities and beyond, the catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world. 16 Membership main article: Catholic Church by country further information: List of Christian denominations by number of members Church membership at the end of 2014 was.272 billion, which.8 of the world population. 75 Catholics represent about half of all Christians. 76 geographic distribution of Catholics worldwide continues to shift, with 17 in Africa, 48 in the Americas, 11 Asia, 23 in Europe, and 1 in Oceania. 75 Catholic ministers include ordained clergy, lay ecclesial ministers, missionaries, and catechists.

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64 The pope does not generally appoint bishops or clergy in the eastern Catholic Churches, deferring to their internal governance structures, but may intervene if he feels it necessary. See also: Catholic Church Liturgy dioceses, parishes, organisations and institutes Further information: List of Catholic dioceses (structured view), parish in the catholic Church, religious institute, and Catholic charities Individual countries, regions, or major cities are served by particular churches known as dioceses in the latin. As of 2008, the catholic Church has 2,795 dioceses. 66 The bishops in a particular country are members of a national or regional episcopal conference. 67 dioceses are divided into parishes, each with one or more priests, deacons or lay ecclesial ministers. 68 Parishes are responsible for the day to day celebration of the sacraments and pastoral homework care of the laity., there are 221,700 parishes worldwide. 70 In the latin Church, catholic men may serve as deacons or priests by receiving sacramental ordination.

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56 The eastern Catholic Churches follow the traditions and spirituality of Eastern Christianity and are Churches that have always remained in full communion with the catholic Church or who dream have chosen to reenter full communion in the centuries following the eastWest Schism and earlier divisions. These churches are communities of Catholic Christians whose forms of worship reflect distinct historical and cultural influences rather than differences in doctrine. A church sui iuris is defined in the code of Canons for the eastern Churches as a "group of Christian faithful united by a hierarchy" that is recognised by the pope in his capacity as the supreme authority on matters of doctrine within the church. 57 The term is an innovation of the cceo to denote the relative autonomy of the eastern Catholic Churches, 58 who remain in full communion with the pope, but have governance structures and liturgical traditions separate from that of the latin Church. 53 While the latin Church's canons do not explicitly use the term, it is tacitly recognised as equivalent. Some eastern Catholic Churches are governed by a patriarch who is elected by the synod of the bishops of that church, 59 others are headed by a major archbishop, 60 others are under a metropolitan, 61 and others are organised as individual eparchies. 62 Each church has authority over the particulars of its internal organisation, liturgical rites, liturgical calendar and other aspects of its spirituality, subject only to the authority of the pope. 63 The roman Curia has a specific department, the congregation for the Oriental Churches, to maintain relations with them.

50 The distinct 1990 Code of Canons of the eastern Churches ( cceo, after the latin initials) applies to the autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches. 51 Latin and Eastern churches main articles: Catholic particular churches and liturgical rites, latin Church, and Eastern Catholic Churches In the 2,000-year history of the church, several complementary expressions of the Christian faith emerged throughout the world, most prominently, the western and Eastern Christian traditions. The catholic Church continues these traditions, through constituent autonomous particular churches, also known as "churches sui iuris " ( Latin : "of one's own right. The largest and most well known is the latin Church, with more than 1 billion members worldwide. Relatively small in terms of adherents compared to the latin Church, are the 23 self-governing Eastern Catholic Churches with a combined membership.3 million as of 2010. The latin Church is governed by the pope and diocesan bishops directly appointed by him. The pope exercises a direct patriarchal role over the latin Church, which is considered to form the original and still major part of Western Christianity, a heritage of certain beliefs and customs originating in Europe and northwestern Africa, some of which are inherited by many.

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36 The holy see also confers orders, decorations and medals, such as the handwriting orders of chivalry originating from the middle Ages. While the famous saint Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, above the traditional site of saint Peter's tomb, the papal cathedral for the diocese of Rome is saint John Lateran, located within the city of Rome, though enjoying extraterritorial privileges accredited to the holy. The position of cardinal is a rank of honour bestowed by popes on certain clergy, such as leaders within the roman Curia, bishops serving in major cities and distinguished theologians. For advice and assistance in governing, the pope may turn to the college of Cardinals. 37 Following the death or resignation of a pope, note 5 members of the college of Cardinals who are under age 80 act as electoral college, meeting in a papal conclave to elect a successor. 39 Although the conclave may elect any male catholic as pope, since 1389 only cardinals have been elected. 40 Canon law main article: Canon law of the catholic Church The canon law of the catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities to regulate the church's external organisation and government and to order and.

41 In the catholic Church, universal positive ecclesiastical laws, based upon either immutable divine and natural law, or changeable circumstantial and merely positive law, derive formal authority and promulgation from the office of pope who, as Supreme pontiff, possesses the totality of legislative, executive and. 42 It has all the ordinary elements of a mature legal system: 43 laws, courts, lawyers, judges, 43 a fully articulated legal code, 44 principles of legal interpretation 45 and coercive penalties that are limited to moral coercion. 46 47 Canon law concerns the catholic Church's life and organisation and is distinct from civil law. In its own field it gives force to civil law only by specific enactment in matters such as the guardianship of minors. 48 Similarly, civil law may give force in its field to canon law, but only by specific enactment, as with regard to canonical marriages. 49 Currently, the 1983 Code of Canon Law is in effect primarily for the latin Church.

Ultimately leading the entire catholic Church is the bishop of Rome, commonly called the pope, whose jurisdiction is called the holy see. In parallel to the diocesan structure are a variety of religious institutes that function autonomously, often subject only to the authority of the pope, though sometimes subject to the local bishop. Most religious institutes only have male or female members but some have both. Additionally, lay members aid many liturgical functions during worship services. Holy see, papacy, roman Curia, and College of Cardinals main articles: Holy see, pope, roman Curia, and College of Cardinals Further information: List of popes The hierarchy of the catholic Church is headed by the bishop of Rome, known as the pope ( Latin. 31 The current pope, francis, was elected on by papal conclave.

32 The office of the pope is known as the papacy. The catholic Church holds that Christ instituted the papacy upon giving the keys of heaven to saint Peter. His ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the " Holy see " ( Sancta sedes in Latin or the " Apostolic see " (meaning the see of the apostle peter). 33 34 Directly serving the pope is the roman Curia, the central governing body that administers the day-to-day business of the catholic Church. The pope is also sovereign of Vatican City, 35 a small city-state entirely enclaved within the city of Rome, which is an entity distinct from the holy see. It is as head of the holy see, not as head of Vatican City State, that the pope receives ambassadors of states and sends them his own diplomatic representatives.

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23 24 While the essay "Roman Church" has been used to describe the pope's diocese of Rome since the fall of the western Roman Empire and into the early middle Ages (6th10th century the "Roman Catholic Church" has been applied to the whole church in English. 25 "Roman Catholic" has occasionally paperless appeared also in documents produced both by the holy see, note 3 notably applied to certain national episcopal conferences, and local dioceses. Note 4 The name "Catholic Church" for the whole church is used in the 1990 Catechism of the catholic Church, the 1983 Code of Canon Law, the documents of the 196265 Second Vatican council, and numerous other official documents. Organisation "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on Earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on Earth shall be loosed in heaven." Jesus to peter in the gospel of Matthew, 16:19 The crossed. The triple crown papal tiara symbolises the triple power of the pope as "father of kings "governor of the world" and "Vicar of Christ". The gold cross on a monde ( globe ) surmounting the tiara symbolises the sovereignty of Jesus. Main articles: hierarchy of the catholic Church and Catholic Church by country The catholic Church follows an episcopal polity, led by bishops who have received the sacrament of Holy Orders who are given formal jurisdictions of governance within the church. 29 30 There are three levels of clergy, the episcopate, composed of bishops who hold jurisdiction over a geographic area called a diocese or eparchy ; the presbyterate, composed of priests ordained by bishops and who work in local diocese or religious orders; and the.

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Contents Name further information: Catholic (term) and Roman Catholic (term) Catholic (from Greek : καθολικός, translit. 'universal was first used to describe the church in the early 2nd century. 18 The first known use of the phrase "the catholic church" (καθολικ κλησία he katholike ekklesia ) occurred in the letter written about 110 ad from saint Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans. Note 2 In the catechetical Lectures (c. . 350) of saint Cyril of Jerusalem, the name "Catholic Church" was used to distinguish it from other groups that also called themselves "the church". 19 20 The "Catholic" notion was further stressed in the edict de fide catolica issued 380 by Theodosius i, the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the roman Empire, when establishing the state church of the roman Empire. 21 Since the eastWest Schism of 1054, the eastern Church has taken the adjective "Orthodox" as its distinctive epithet (however, its official name continues to be the "Orthodox Catholic Church" 22 ) and the western Church in communion with the holy see has similarly taken.

in dogmas and devotions. 15 Its teaching includes sanctification through faith and evangelisation of the gospel as well as Catholic social teaching, which emphasises voluntary support for the sick, the poor, and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. The catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world. 16 The catholic Church has influenced Western philosophy, culture, science, and art. The catholic Church shared communion with the eastern Orthodox Church until the eastWest Schism in 1054, disputing particularly the authority of the pope, as well as with the Oriental Orthodox churches prior to the Chalcedonian schism in 451 over differences in Christology. Catholics live all over the world through missions, diaspora, and conversions. Since the 20th century the majority reside in the southern hemisphere due to secularisation in Europe, and increased persecution in the middle east. From the late 20th century, the catholic Church has been criticised for its doctrines on sexuality, its refusal to ordain women, and its handling of sexual abuse cases.

Its central administration, the, holy see, is in the. Vatican City, an enclave within, rome, italy. The catholic Church teaches that it is the. One, holy, catholic and Apostolic church founded by, jesus Christ, 6 7 note 1 that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles, and that the pope is the successor to saint Peter to whom primacy was conferred by jesus Christ. 10 It maintains that it practises the original Christian faith, reserving infallibility, passed down by sacred tradition. 11 The latin Church, the eastern Catholic Churches, and institutes such as mendicant orders and enclosed monastic orders reflect interests a variety of theological and spiritual emphases in the church. 12 13 Of its seven sacraments the eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in the mass.

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"Catholic" and "Catholicism" redirect essay here. For other uses, see. Catholic Church (disambiguation) and, catholic (disambiguation). The, catholic Church, also known as the, roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than.299 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development. 5, the church is headed by the, bishop of Rome, who is known as the. The church's doctrines are summarised in the, nicene Creed.

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