Literature review on depression pdf

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A study in Minneapolis using the Acute myocardial Infarction Registry of the minnesota heart Survey found that 22 of women attended cardiac rehabilitation in comparison to 41 of men (Everson., 1998). It is also evident from overseas research that women may not be referred for cardiac rehabilitation as readily as men (Cochrane, 1992). (1992) found that physicians in Vermont recommended that older men participate in cardiac rehabilitation more often than older women despite both groups having similar clinical profiles. (1998) also found that women on the minnesota heart Survey registry were referred for cardiac rehabilitation less often than men. (1999) explored the use of Phase 1 and Phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation by American men and women found that in the population studied, 66 of men received referral for Phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation, in comparison to 48 of women. However research that investigated patient characteristics related to referral to cardiac rehabilitation found that gender was not a predictor of referral. Predictors of referral to cardiac rehabilitation in this study included the number of acute myocardial infarctions, number of coronary artery bypass grafts (cabg previous participation in cardiac rehabilitation, and leisure physical activity (Burns., 1998). Lieberman, meana and Stewart (1998) performed a canadian based study to examine gender differences as a factor that influenced cardiac rehabilitation participation.

The vast majority of past research is quantitative in nature and performed using mostly male subjects (Boogaard, 1984; Brezinka and Kittel, 1996; Wenger, 1992). 6 8 Gender Issues Cardiac rehabilitation is an area of growing importance for women because of the increase in the number of women suffering from cardiac illness. Over the last 15 years there has plan been an increasing number of research studies looking at gender differences in cardiac rehabilitation participation and benefits (Ades., 1999; Blackburn., 2000; Conn., 1991; lieberman., 1998; Rankin, 1990; Romeo-ashton and Saccucci. Research has shown that women benefit as much as men from cardiac rehabilitation (Ades., 1992; Cannistra., 1992; lavie and Milani, 1995). (1992) examined the exercise capacity of older female and male patients before and after a 12-week supervised aerobic training programme. Results showed that the peak aerobic capacity and maximal oxygen consumption of women improved significantly and that this increase was similar to the increase in male participants. King (2000) reported in her study about the effect of gender on short-term recovery from cardiac surgery that women had a greater improvement in functional capacity than men. However, these findings also indicated that neither gender nor age consistently predicted the degree of recovery (King, 2000). Attendance and Referral Women s attendance at cardiac rehabilitation programmes has been documented to be lower than that of men (Halm., 1999; Wallwork, 1996). (2000) performed an audit of the Phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation programme at Auckland 7 9 Hospital and found that women were less likely to attend than men, universities with 36 of eligible women attending in comparison to 49 of men.

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However the actual content varies from between programmes (nhfnz, 2000). Within New zealand cardiac 5 7 rehabilitation dark programmes are coordinated by clinical nurse specialists and are run through accredited hospitals. This means that there are some geographical areas in which cardiac rehabilitation programmes are not available or readily accessible. Cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to benefit patients with a wide range of conditions including ami. Research studies report an increase in functional capacity (Adams., 1999; Cannistra., 1992; lavie and Milani, 2000) and a decrease in mortality (Naughton., 2000, Oldridge., 1991) for both men and women after rehabilitation. Cardiac rehabilitation has also been linked to improvement in general health, self-esteem and to decrease anxiety (Conn., 1992). Although much of the available research has not been performed on New zealand populations, the findings of these research studies are still relevant because of similarities in dietary habits, risk factors for chd, and rates of cardiac illness between these countries. Although there has been research into cardiac rehabilitation much of that research has focused on exercise tolerance (Cannistra., 1992 participation in exercise programmes (Cannistra., 1992; moore., 1998 risk factors, referral and attendance (Halm., 1999 and usefulness.

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The focus of American programmes appears, from the literature to be largely on exercise (Ades., 1999; Balady., 1996; Bruce., 1976). The American heart Association (AHA) states Phase 2 programmes also provide information on smoking cessation, nutrition and stress management training (aha, 1998). (1995) suggests that cardiac rehabilitation is characterised by long-term interests services that are comprehensive and involve medical evaluation, prescribed exercise, health education to encourage modification of cardiac risk factors, counselling and interventions to modify behaviour. Do not explain what they mean by long-term, however this may be because cardiac rehabilitation programmes last for varying amounts of time. The guidelines provided by the australian Cardiac Rehabilitation Association suggest that phase 2 of cardiac rehabilitation should last for 4 to 12 weeks (ahf, 2000). Cardiac rehabilitation programmes also appear to vary widely within New zealand. Phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation programmes in New zealand run from between 4 to 10 weeks depending on the hospital running the programme (nhfnz, 2000). Programme content usually includes education on self-management, nutrition, exercise, stress management and risk factor reduction.

Cardiac rehabilitation has three recognized phases:. The inpatient phase;. The outpatient phase (up to 12 weeks post event and. The maintenance phase (Australian heart foundation, 2000; Parks., 2000). Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation focuses on gradual mobilization and the resumption of activities of daily living, education, discussion and support including counselling if required, and discharge planning. Outpatient cardiac rehabilitation includes a light to moderate exercise regime and further education, discussion and support (ahf, 2000). Topics covered in cardiac rehabilitation programmes include basic anatomy and physiology of the heart, the effects of heart disease and the healing process, risk factor modification, resumption of physical, sexual and activities of daily living, psychosocial issues, management of symptoms, and investigations as well. Different terminology is used to describe programme components, which makes comparison between countries difficult. Cardiac rehabilitation programmes appear to vary widely in their focus and composition around the world and within New zealand.

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The goals of cardiac rehabilitation are to alleviate or lessen activity related symptoms, improve functional capacity, reduce invalidism and enable to return to a useful and satisfying role within society (who, 1993). Most available guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation, including hiv those of the statement national heart foundation of New zealand (nhfnz) are based on the 1993 who report. The nhfnz cardiac rehabilitation policy statement is as follows:. Rehabilitation of patients who have been treated for cardiac disorders is a necessary aspect of medical care to which all patients with cardiac disorders are entitled. Cardiac rehabilitation should be an integral component of the long term comprehensive care of patients. Cardiac rehabilitation programmes or services should be available to all patients with cardiovascular disease.

Rehabilitation services should be provided by any trained health professional caring for cardiac patients, since no sophisticated equipment or facilities are required. Both patients and their families should participate. (nhfnz, 2000.6) These statements incorporate some of the aspects highlighted by the who expert Committee on Cardiac Rehabilitation in However they fail to highlight that 3 5 every health care worker and the general public should be made aware of the need for cardiac. Cardiac rehabilitation is also described as a dynamic process that assists individuals who have survived a cardiac event to achieve the best level of functioning possible (Mitchell., 1999). Cardiac rehabilitation programmes are aimed at helping individuals to adjust to their illness, limit or reverse the disease, modify risk factors for future cardiac illness, improve return to occupational and social functioning, and reduce the risk of re-infarction or sudden death (Dinnes, 1998; Mitchell.

1 3 The purpose of this literature review was to gain an overview of the available material related to women as consumers of cardiac rehabilitation. This review was then used as part of a grounded theory study exploring women s perceptions of the contribution of cardiac rehabilitation to their recovery from a heart attack. Key words used for this search included women, cardiac rehabilitation, heart attack, myocardial infarction, and illness perception. Literature was accessed using a variety of databases including Cinahl, medline and the web of Science. Cardiac Rehabilitation Ideally, cardiac rehabilitation begins at the time diagnosis of coronary artery disease is made (Comoss., 1979). Diagnosis usually occurs as the result of an acute event such as an acute myocardial infarction (AMI).


(1979,.2) provide the following definition for cardiac rehabilitation; the process of actively assisting the known cardiac patient to achieve and maintain his (sic) optimal state of health. Although the definition provided by comoss. Is now over 20 years old, more recent definitions are very similar. It would appear from this that the description of cardiac rehabilitation has changed little since its inception. The world health Organisation (WHO) provides the following definition of cardiac rehabilitation: The rehabilitation of cardiac patients is the sum of activities required to influence favourably the underlying cause of the disease, as well as the best possible physical, mental and social conditions, so that. The who goes on to comment that rehabilitation is an essential part of care that should be available to all cardiac patients (who, 1993).

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In 1996 women lost 25,526 years to premature mortality and 4296 years to disability as a result of chd (Tobias, 2001). Despite the high death and disability rates, there is a lack of relevant research related to chd in New zealand women. There is a wide variety of literature available about chd. Much of the research related to chd has been performed using either exclusively male summary populations or such small numbers of women that the data from the women studied were unable to be analysed independently. As a result of this the treatment and rehabilitation of cardiac patients has been largely based on research on men. It is apparent that more researchers are focusing on research that examines women s responses to chd and the care and treatment they receive. The following literature review explores some of the issues related to women s experience of cardiac rehabilitation. The majority of the research presented in this review originates from the United States of America and the United Kingdom, who share similarities in lifestyle, technology, and dietary habits with New zealand.

literature review on depression pdf

Home, depression, epub books collection torrent download Unmasking Male depression: Recognizing the root cause of Many Problem Behaviors, such as Anger, resentment, Abusiveness, silence, addictions, and Sexual Compulsiveness (Paperback) - common B0028icfeq pdf. More, amazon book downloads Depression: Depression Cure: overcome Anxiety, be happy, help yourself, And Become Stress Free (depression, depression cure, depression and anxiety, depression. Help, depression help, depression free) pdf fb2 ibook b00OX3GZ4U. 1 School of Nursing School of Nursing journal Articles coda year manual 2008 Women and cardiac rehabilitation: a review of the literature wendy. Day universal College of learning (ucol this paper is posted at coda. N jo/3 2 Women and Cardiac Rehabilitation: a review of the literature Introduction heart disease is an important issue for all New zealanders. According to the ministry of health (moh coronary heart Disease (CHD) is the single leading cause of death for New zealanders. In 1997, chd accounted for 21 of female deaths and 25 of male deaths (moh, 1999).

on the low serotonin hypothesis. In-text: (Andrews., 2015 your Bibliography: Andrews,., Bharwani,., lee,., fox,. Is serotonin an upper or a downer? The evolution of the serotonergic system and its role in depression and the antidepressant response. Neuroscience biobehavioral reviews, online 51,.164-188. Available at: m/S /1-s2.0-s e82bbc acdnat Accessed 14 Jul. Depression Free ebooks pdf download sites!

5 Rush aj, trivedi mh, ibrahim hm,. Mianserin is similar to mirtazapine but also antagonizes α1-presynaptic receptors, which decreases presynaptic stimulation of 5HT neurons. It has similar side effects to mirtazapine but is also associated with blood dyscrasias and complete blood count monitoring is required. Medic ans 51 Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors Reboxetine reboxetine is a specific reuptake inhibitor. Dosage is usually between 8 and 12 mg/day in twice-daily administration. However, in practice, antidepressants are often given once daily and there. 1007/ _5, springer-Verlag London Limited managing depression in clinical practice is no evidence of benefit in giving any antidepressant more than once daily, except to reduce side effects by inf luencing peak plasma effects. More than once-daily administration may impair adherence, and for many drugs single night-time administration is acceptable and tolerable 4,5. Average dose ranges are given, but these should be taken as guidelines only and reference to manufacturers information and/or national formulary is advisable at the time of prescribing 6,7.

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Deliberate self-harm in young people: characteristics and subsequent mortality in a 20-year cohort of strange patients presenting to hospital. J clin Psychiatry 2007; 68:1574 1583. Outpatient Management of Depression: a guide for the Practitioner, 2nd edition. Caddo, ok: Professional Communications Inc, 1999. 4 Yates wr, mitchell j, rush. Clinical features of depressed outpatients with and without co-occurring general medical conditions in star*D. Gen Hosp Psych 2004; 26:421429.


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