This will enable knowledge management to reach its goal of facilitating the delivery of the best knowledge to the right person at just the right time. With this knowledge, people are empowered to effectively solve problems, make decisions, respond to customer queries, and create new products and services tailored to the needs of clients. Leitch and Philip. Knowledge management solutions for Customer service. Companies that are winning in this environment provide stand-out customer service by using knowledge to empower contact center agents and drive self-service interactions. In delivering km solutions to world- class contact centers and self-service operations, the article mentioned six practices. (Egain trusted by leaders 2006). They are: * quantify value * build the right team * avoid the Swiss Chess syndrome * maintain velocity * Balance ivory tower Knowledge with Street Smarts * Provide flexible content access.
There is a famous Chinese saying, If you are not fish, how you know that the fish is swimming happily in the water? In order to meet the customers' expectations, it is better for us to learn from their experience in using your services and products. Although the concept of customer knowledge is relatively new in the field of knowledge management, we would try to study the implementation of Customer Knowledge management tree (CKM) in a public transport corporation so as to discuss this concept in greater depth. The need for Knowledge management in Customer service sector. As businesses continue to forge ahead in twenty-first century, knowledge management has materialized as the only real differentiator. According to larry Prusak, the executive director of the ibm institute for Knowledge management, In the emerging economy, a firms only advantage is its ability to leverage and utilize its knowledge. To accomplish the knowledge production and integration processes, an organization needs to foster collaboration among all individuals and to codify the resulting insights in knowledge base repositories for self-service access by others.
gap5: The discrepancy between customer expectations and their perceptions of the service delivered: as a result of the influences exerted from the customer side and the shortfalls (gaps) on the part of the service provider. In this case, customer expectations are influenced by the extent of personal needs, word of mouth recommendation and past service experiences. gap6: The discrepancy between customer expectations and employees perceptions: as a result of the differences in the understanding of customer expectations by front-line service providers. gap7: The discrepancy between employees perceptions and management perceptions: as a result of the differences in the understanding of customer expectations between managers and service providers. For example, when someone goes into a fast food restaurant to a hamburger for meal, they are expecting exactly what they are accustomed to getting (a quick and tasty burger). If it takes 15 minutes to get a hamburger that does not even have the famous special sauce on it, the customer's perceived service of this fast food restaurant is going to drop. A key question that many organizations may ask is how to understand their customers in more details?
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This information then assists a manager in identifying cost-effective ways of closing service quality gaps and of prioritizing which gaps to focus on a critical decision given scarce resources. While there have been efforts to study service quality, there has been no general agreement on the measurement of the concept. The majority of the work to date has attempted to use the servqual (Parasuraman., 1985; 1988) methodology in an effort to measure service quality (e.g. Brooks., 1999; Chaston, 1994; Edvardsson., 1997; Lings and Brooks, 1998; reynoso and moore, 1995; young and Varble, 1997; Sahney., 2004). One of the aims of this study involves the use of servqual instrument in order to ascertain any actual or perceived gaps between customer expectations and perceptions of the service offered. Another aim of this paper is to point out how management of service improvement can become more logical and integrated with respect to the prioritized service quality dimensions and their affections on increasing/decreasing service quality gaps.
In the following, after a brief review of the service quality concept, the model of service quality gaps and the servqual methodology is demonstrated and an example is presented to pinpoint the application of the servqual approach. Then, after a discussion, major conclusions are derived. According to zeithaml, parasuraman berry (1990 seven Service gaps gap1: Customers expectations versus management perceptions: as a result of the lack of a marketing research orientation, inadequate upward communication and too many layers of management. gap2: Management perceptions versus service specifications: as a result of inadequate commitment to service quality, a perception of unfeasibility, inadequate task standardization and an absence of goal setting. gap3: Service specifications mobile versus service delivery: as a result of role ambiguity and conflict, poor employee-job fit and poor technology-job fit, inappropriate supervisory control systems, lack of perceived control and lack of teamwork. gap4: Service delivery versus external communication: as a result of inadequate horizontal communications and propensity to over-promise.
In this layer, it is easy for the enterprise to cooperate with corporate customers, but not so easy with individual consumer, though there might be exceptions. According to feng tian (2005 there might not be such clear hierarchical classification of ckm in reality. Active acquisition may occur on the level of independent of the enterprise and vice versa. Similarly, there also exists the same relation between active acquisition and knowledge cooperation. Every layer is permeable and interlaced. The objective of this classification is to find out the general rule in ckm development process.
As enterprises from different industries offers different types of services and have different focus customer groups, the enterprise should adopt a contingency approach according to its specific situation. Most enterprises in China are now at the levels of independence of enterprise. The level of active acquisition is the final target and trend of ckm. Therefore, the following part of this article takes the enterprise on the level of active acquisition as examples to inquire into the successful implementation of ckm. Service gap Analysis applied in ckm the servqual model. Managers in the service sector are under increasing pressure to demonstrate that their services are customer-focused and that continuous performance improvement is being delivered. Given the financial and resource constraints under which service organizations must manage it is essential that customer expectations are properly understood and measured and that, from the customers perspective, any gaps in service quality are identified.
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Both organization and customers work together with common goals, and the customer becomes an active and key participant in tree the knowledge generation process. Hierarchical model of ckm based on taxonomy of Customer Knowledge (CK) and definition of ckm, considering the degree of the enterprises ck application as well its effect on the management, ckm is divided into three hierarchies in theory. They are independence of enterprise, active acquisition and knowledge cooperation (Feng tian, 2005). Within the independence of enterprise level, enterprise makes use of is the knowledge that is prepared for the customer. It is basically internal knowledge with little consideration of the customers needs. Active acquisition means enterprise actively obtains knowledge about the customer to apply it in the decision and strategies of production and management activities. Lastly, knowledge cooperation includes those enterprise makes use of not only knowledge about the customer, but also knowledge from the customer.
Gibbert, leibold, and Probst (2002) would describe this only as customer information, as it is knowledge about the customer and is gained without a predetermined close interaction or partnership. However, the emphasis is on acquiring information about the customer but without interaction. Davenport (2001) suggests that yeats knowledge about the customer is only the first step, and organizations should create processes to manage the relationships they discover with this information to create profitable interactions in a better way. The focus remains with learning about the customers needs through different channels. In fact, the customers involvement in the knowledge process is still passive. In recent years, a concept on customers as partners in the knowledge creation process has been presented by sawhney prandelli (2000). Customers generate knowledge with an organization so as to create value for both of them by sharing knowledge residing within customers to create better products and services.
and future development of the system etc. Literature review edit, the definition of Customer Knowledge management (ckm. Customer Knowledge management (CKM) is concerned with the management and exploitation of customer knowledge (Rowley, 2002). It comprises the processes that are concerned with the identification, acquisition, and utilization of knowledge from beyond a firms external boundary in order to create value for an organization. Paquette (2006) describes an important aspect of customer knowledge is that it is knowledge not owned by the firm, but by the others who may or may not be willing to share such knowledge. The processes that a firm employs to manage the identification, acquisition, and internal utilization of customer knowledge are collectively referred to as customer knowledge management. The background of ckm in the past, many researches have used customer knowledge and customer information interchangeably, causing confusion between these two terms. According to Blosch (2000 understanding how each customer interacts with business processes is to gain knowledge about that customer.
The 21st century is the age of knowledge pioneers. Many large organizations begin to realize that keeping data and information is not enough movie to maintain competitive advantage in the business world. In response to this challenge, organizations have been experimenting ways for the utilization and transfer of assets so as to provide the expected products and services for the customers. On the other hand, many organizations nowadays may only know their customers but not understand them. It is better to learn from customers their experiences in using your products and services. Without an increased awareness and use of organizational customer knowledge throughout the entire organization, the organization is expected to loss of competitive advantage and ability to provide the products and services meeting the customer needs. In this chapter, we would like to investigate how the concepts of Customer Knowledge management (CKM) are implemented in the Asian public transport organization, and learn useful knowledge management concept from experts. Furthermore, we would like to illustrate the background information of ckm and corporation by reviewing a number of articles and journals. According that, number of km tools and strategies will also be analyzed.
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Wong Man Chit,Chris yuen Ching yee,christie chan Yin Ling,Elza chan yuk lin, Samantha Cheng leong, leo. Abstract edit, in this information age, knowledge management (KM) has become the main competitive strategy of a company. Especially customer Knowledge management (ckm which emphasizes on knowledge management of their customers, is the main successful factor of current corporations. This chapter is based on an empirical investigation of customer knowledge sharing system from knowledge professional. Through interviewing the customer Knowledge management Officer, this chapter traces the interactive processes between knowledge management practices within the corporation and the general organizational context. Base on the case study, we summarize our finding relevant to Knowledge management and Customers Knowledge management. We conclude the km management in our case study has played as a critical role in effective performance of knowledge management practice. Introduction edit, it cannot be denied that the collaboration and sharing of knowledge have clear benefits for people and enhance business performance.